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 GLOSSARY

My Glossary is not in alphabetical order so as to allow  the reader an understanding of hosiery in a story like fashion  
as well as being able to look for specific terms.

Nylon First introduced in 1939. Nylon is produced utilizing a special process and requires coal, air and water.
Filament A fiber of indefinite length. Plain and simple just one fiber.
Thread Threads are made using one or more filaments twisted together. Two fibers twisted together.
Monofilament Yarn A single strand nylon yarn which has a semi shiny appearance and tends to be less resilient than multifilament yarn. All 15 denier yarn is monofilament, and so is a small quantity of 20 denier yarn. All other nylon hosiery yarns are multifilament.
Multifilament Yarn Nylon yarn made of several tiny stands twisted together, 20, 30 and 40-denier are multifilament yarns made up of several strands of thinner nylon combined by twisting. The twisting process gives a slightly softer feel to the yarn and imparts more resilience or give and less shine to the fabric of a nylon stocking made from multifilament yarn. Stockings made using these yarns can also be very sheer and have the ability to help cover any small blemishes.
Denier This is the thickness of one thread of nylon used in making Hosiery. The lower the number in denier, the lighter and finer the yarn, and thus the Sheerer the stocking. Formula – weight-per-unit-length (It is numerically equal to the weight, in grams, of 9,000 meters of yarn).

Great formula to remember for the test at the end, Ha, Ha.

A hair from the average human head is about 50 Denier.

The lowest denier nylon ever produced for stockings was 6 Denier which was exhibited at the Nylon fair in London in 1956.
Evening sheer
Ultra sheer
A stocking that is very sheer, normally utilizing 15 or less Denier nylon thread.
Walking sheer
Business Sheer
Day sheer
All these terms are synonymous with a stockings knit of nylon greater than 15 Denier for a more durable wear while maintaining a near ultra sheer appearance. Normally 30-denier nylon thread is used in these stockings.
Utility Weight
Service weight
A hosiery product that will give long life and designed for people in a physical and active working situation were high stress is placed on the hosiery. Usually made with greater than 30 Denier nylons thread.
GAUGE The number of threads per 1 ˝” in a single knitted row. 51 gauge means 51  threads per 1 ˝ inches. The more threads per area the higher the gauge. Increasing the gauge makes a stocking more silk like and adds to its durability. To manufacture a higher gauge stocking increases cost to both manufacture as well as consumer.
Sheerness This is determined by a combination of gauge and denier and not as many people mistakenly believe by gauge alone. It is obvious that the denier or thickness of the yarn has as much to do with sheerness as does the gauge. A 51 or finer gauge stocking is sheer only if the yarn with which it is knitted is a thin or low denier yarn. However a 60 gauge 15 denier stocking for example, is actually less sheer than a 51 gauge/15 denier stocking  because even though the weight of the yarn is the same in both, 60 gauge has more yarn pushed together in 1 ˝ inches of stocking. It is very difficult to see the difference in the sheerness of these two types of stockings and the added benefit of the silkiness of the 60 gauge stocking is well worth it’s price.
RHT Reinforced heel and toe. The heel and the toe area of a stocking is produced using a higher gauge (number of rows of thread/area) of nylon so as to increase its durability in that Area.
Demi toe The toe area is reinforced by using a heavier gauge (number of rows of thread/area) of nylon to insure a more durable area.

Sandal foot

Nude heel and toe

 

A term loosely used by Hosiery manufactures. Some times it refers to a stockings with sheer heel and toe, for wear with the open toe shoe and sometimes it means the stocking has reinforced toe area. Always make certain it is stated
Welt  The top portion of the stocking, were the garter is to be attached. This area is made with a heavier gauge of nylon, doubled over and finished closed.

Run guard

Run stop   

 

Manufactured into a stocking to stop a run from continuing into the leg area. Run stops are normally placed on the outside edge of an active area or an area exposed to abrasion such as the toe, heel or welt.

Plain Knit

Flat knit  

 

The-knitting style that gives the smoothest, silkiest feel and sheerest surface. This style was used mainly in pre 1970 stockings and was replaced with Micro Mesh, Run resist, no run exc. non of which has the silk like characteristics of flat knit.
Full Fashion Stocking material is knitted flat in sheets, cut to the correct size and a seam up the back unites the two sides afterwards. As a result of decreasing stitches over the calf to make the hose narrower in the ankle, small "fashion markings" or loops are visible running parallel to either side of the seam.

Seamed Hosiery

Mock Seams  

 

A false seam sewn into the back of a seamless stocking that was produced on a circular knitting machine.
Boarding A full-shaped heat setting operation in which stockings are put on metal leg form for a specific size and shape and then pressure set at a high temperature. The term "boarding" stems from the olden days when wooden boards were used to dry stockings.
Pre Boarding The process, which gives nylons their permanent shape and is done before the stockings are dyed.

Transfer          

Heat Transfers

Decals

 

The method of applying writing, design or logo to a stocking by transferring a design from specially printed paper to the fabric by means of heat and pressure
Mesh An open work design. At the place where the larger opening is desired, one or more loops of the yarn are removed from the needles of the knitting machines and moved over either to the right or the left, to other needles. Where the loop or loops have been removed, a small opening appears in the stocking fabric. A mesh stocking is not necessarily a non-run stocking.

Non-Run

Run-Resistant

 

A stocking manufacturing technique where the loops of nylon are knotted together (interlocking stitch or tuck stitch patterns) so that it resists runs in an upward direction. The new technique gave increased wear ability but to a loss of the silk like quality of flat knit. This style stocking became popular in the early 1970s and soon took over the market share that Flat knit dominated for years.
Pin point mesh Mesh inhibiting closer, even stitches that lend a sheer, smooth, streak free fashion look to your legs. Pin Point mesh nylons feel nicer, retain snug, knit in contour – fit from toe to thigh.        
Needle Count The total number of needles used in knitting stockings. The higher the needle counts the closer the stitches.
Queen Size Stockings sized to fit the larger person. Queen size is usually considered an extension to the standard sizing chart.
Outsized A stocking constructed proportionally larger throughout to fit an extra stout leg.
Seamless Stockings knit in one operation on circular machines (one continuous operation) so that no seaming Is required up the back. The only stitching required is in the end wear the toe is and at the finishing of the welt.
Irregulars Hosiery that contains minor imperfections in dimensions, size, color or knit but without obvious mends, runs, breaks or substantial damage the fabric. Irregular stockings usually do not impair their wearing Quality.
 Seconds All hosiery, which is not of first quality and does not qualify as "irregulars”. Can contain minor imperfections most, of which are not noticeable but can be seen on close examination.
Thirds Hosiery that contains major imperfections such as runs, snags, breaks and obvious mends.
Foot size length in inches from back of heel to tip of toe.
Spandex A generic term denoting a man-made electrometric fiber used in place of rubber. Dupont developed spandex in 1959, offering the unique capacity for stretch and recovery. It can stretch to over five times its relaxed strength and fully recover.

Thigh-Highs

Stay up stockings

 

Stockings that just reach the thigh and are held up by elastic bands in the welt area.
Silk Stockings

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Lace top stockings Stockings that have a lace material sewn onto the top of the stocking but unlike stay up stockings these do require a garter to keep them up.

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