introduced in 1939. Nylon is produced utilizing a special process
and requires coal, air and water.
fiber of indefinite length. Plain and simple just one fiber.
are made using one or more filaments twisted together. Two fibers
single strand nylon yarn which has a semi shiny appearance and
tends to be less resilient than multifilament yarn. All 15 denier
yarn is monofilament, and so is a small quantity of 20 denier
yarn. All other nylon hosiery yarns are multifilament.
yarn made of several tiny stands twisted together, 20, 30 and
40-denier are multifilament yarns made up of several strands of
thinner nylon combined by twisting. The twisting process gives a
slightly softer feel to the yarn and imparts more resilience or
give and less shine to the fabric of a nylon stocking made from
multifilament yarn. Stockings made using these yarns can also be
very sheer and have the ability to help cover any small blemishes.
is the thickness of one thread of nylon used in making Hosiery.
The lower the number in denier, the lighter and finer the yarn,
and thus the Sheerer the stocking. Formula –
weight-per-unit-length (It is numerically equal to the weight, in
grams, of 9,000 meters of yarn).
Great formula to remember for the test at the end, Ha, Ha.
A hair from the average human head is about 50 Denier.
The lowest denier nylon ever produced for stockings was 6 Denier
which was exhibited at the Nylon fair in London in 1956.
stocking that is very sheer, normally utilizing 15 or less Denier
these terms are synonymous with a stockings knit of nylon greater
than 15 Denier for a more durable wear while maintaining a near
ultra sheer appearance. Normally 30-denier nylon thread is used in
hosiery product that will give long life and designed for people
in a physical and active working situation were high stress is
placed on the hosiery. Usually made with greater than 30 Denier
number of threads per 1 ˝” in a single knitted row. 51 gauge
means 51 threads per
1 ˝ inches. The more threads per area the higher the gauge.
Increasing the gauge makes a stocking more silk like and adds to
its durability. To manufacture a higher gauge stocking increases
cost to both manufacture as well as consumer.
is determined by a combination of gauge and
denier and not as many people mistakenly believe by gauge alone.
It is obvious that the denier or thickness of the yarn has as much
to do with sheerness as does the gauge. A 51 or finer gauge
stocking is sheer only if the yarn with which it is knitted is a
thin or low denier yarn. However a 60 gauge 15 denier stocking for
example, is actually less sheer than a 51 gauge/15 denier stocking
because even though the weight of the yarn is the same in
both, 60 gauge has more yarn pushed together in 1 ˝ inches of
stocking. It is very difficult to see the difference in the
sheerness of these two types of stockings and the added benefit of
the silkiness of the 60 gauge stocking is well worth it’s price.
heel and toe. The heel and the toe area of a stocking is produced
using a higher gauge (number of rows of thread/area) of nylon so
as to increase its durability in that Area.
toe area is reinforced by using a heavier gauge (number of rows of
thread/area) of nylon to insure a more durable area.
Nude heel and toe
term loosely used by Hosiery manufactures. Some times it refers to
a stockings with sheer heel and toe, for wear with the open toe
shoe and sometimes it means the stocking has reinforced toe area.
Always make certain it is stated
top portion of the stocking, were the garter is to be attached.
This area is made with a heavier gauge of nylon, doubled over and
into a stocking to stop a run from continuing into the leg area.
Run stops are normally placed on the outside edge of an active
area or an area exposed to abrasion such as the toe, heel or welt.
style that gives the smoothest, silkiest feel and sheerest
surface. This style was used mainly in pre 1970 stockings and was
replaced with Micro Mesh, Run resist, no run exc. non of which has
the silk like characteristics of flat knit.
material is knitted flat in sheets, cut to the correct size and a
seam up the back unites the two sides afterwards. As a result of
decreasing stitches over the calf to make the hose narrower in the
ankle, small "fashion markings" or loops are visible
running parallel to either side of the seam.
false seam sewn into the back of a seamless stocking that was
produced on a circular
full-shaped heat setting operation in which stockings are put on
metal leg form for a specific size and shape and then pressure set
at a high temperature. The term "boarding" stems from
the olden days when wooden boards were used to dry stockings.
process, which gives nylons their permanent shape and is done before
the stockings are dyed.
method of applying writing, design or logo to a stocking by
transferring a design from specially printed paper to the fabric
by means of heat and pressure
open work design. At the place where the larger opening is
desired, one or more loops of the yarn are removed from the
needles of the knitting machines and moved over either to the
right or the left, to other needles. Where the loop or loops have
been removed, a small opening appears in the stocking fabric. A
mesh stocking is not necessarily a non-run stocking.
stocking manufacturing technique where the loops of nylon are
knotted together (interlocking stitch or tuck stitch patterns) so
that it resists runs in an upward direction. The new technique
gave increased wear ability but to a loss of the silk like quality
of flat knit. This style stocking became popular in the early
1970s and soon took over the market share that Flat knit dominated
inhibiting closer, even stitches that lend a sheer, smooth, streak
free fashion look to your legs. Pin Point mesh nylons feel nicer,
retain snug, knit in contour – fit from toe to thigh.
total number of needles used in knitting stockings. The higher the
needle counts the closer the stitches.
sized to fit the larger person. Queen size is usually considered
an extension to the standard sizing chart.
stocking constructed proportionally larger throughout to fit an
extra stout leg.
knit in one operation on circular machines (one continuous
operation) so that no seaming Is required up the back. The only
stitching required is in the end wear the toe is and at the
finishing of the welt.
that contains minor imperfections in dimensions, size, color or
knit but without obvious mends, runs, breaks or substantial damage
the fabric. Irregular stockings usually do not impair their
hosiery, which is not of first quality and does not qualify as
"irregulars”. Can contain minor imperfections most, of
which are not noticeable but can be seen on close examination.
that contains major imperfections such as runs, snags, breaks and
in inches from back of heel to tip of toe.
generic term denoting a man-made electrometric fiber used in place
of rubber. Dupont developed spandex in 1959, offering the unique
capacity for stretch and recovery. It can stretch to over five
times its relaxed strength and fully recover.
that just reach the thigh and are held up by elastic bands in the welt area.
that have a lace material sewn onto the top of the stocking but
unlike stay up stockings these do require a garter to keep them